Andrew Carnegie’s decision to assist library construction developed due to his personal experience. Born in 1835, he spent his first 12 years during the coastal town of Dunfermline, Scotland. There he heard men read aloud and discuss books borrowed with the Tradesmen’s Subscription Library that his father, a weaver, had helped create. Carnegie began his formal education at age eight, but been required to stop after only three years. The rapid industrialization within the textile trade forced small businessmen like Carnegie’s father outside of business. Due to this fact, the family sold their belongings and immigrated to Allegheny, a suburb of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Andrew Carnegie’s decision to assist library construction developed due to his personal experience. Born in 1835, he spent his first 12 years during the coastal town of Dunfermline, Scotland. There he heard men read aloud and discuss books borrowed with the Tradesmen’s Subscription Library that his father, a weaver, had helped create.www.superiorcontent.com/thesis Carnegie began his formal education at age eight, but been required to stop after only three years. The rapid industrialization within the textile trade forced small businessmen like Carnegie’s father outside of business. Due to this fact, the family sold their belongings and immigrated to Allegheny, a suburb of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Although these new circumstances required the young Carnegie to check out work, his learning failed to end. After the year from a textile factory, he became a messenger boy for the local telegraph company. Many of his fellow messengers introduced him to Col. James Anderson of Allegheny, who every Saturday opened his personal library to any young worker who wished to borrow a magazine. Carnegie later said the colonel opened the windows where the sunlight of information streamed. In 1853, whenever the colonel’s representatives attempted to restrict the library’s use, Carnegie wrote a letter to your editor of your Pittsburgh Dispatch defending the proper in all working boys to experience the pleasures with the library. More significant, he resolved that, should he ever be wealthy, he will make similar opportunities designed for other poor workers.

Within the next half-century Carnegie accumulated the fortune that would enable him to satisfy that pledge. During his years as a messenger, Carnegie had taught himself the ability of telegraphy. This skill helped him make contacts when using the Pennsylvania Railroad, where he went to work at age 18. Throughout his 12-year railroad association he rose quickly, ultimately becoming superintendent of your Pennsylvania’s Pittsburgh division. He simultaneously invested in a number of other businesses, including railroad locomotives, oil, and iron and steel. In 1865, Carnegie left the railroad to control the Keystone Bridge Company, which had been successfully replacing wooden railroad bridges with iron ones. Via the 1870s he was centering on steel manufacturing, ultimately creating the Carnegie Steel Company. In 1901 he sold that business for $250 million.

Carnegie then retired and devoted the remainder of his life to philanthropy. Just before selling Carnegie Steel he had started to consider how to deal with his immense fortune. In 1889 he wrote a famous essay entitled The Gospel of Wealth, where by he stated that wealthy men should do without extravagance, provide moderately with regard to their dependents, and distribute the remainder of their riches to benefit the welfare and happiness within the common man–while using the consideration to assist you to just those who would help themselves. The Best Fields for Philanthropy, his second essay, listed seven fields to which the wealthy should donate: universities, libraries, medical centers, public parks, meeting and concert halls, public baths, and churches. He later expanded this list to add gifts that promoted scientific research, the typical spread of knowledge, along with the promotion of world peace. A number of these organizations continue to keep this day: the Carnegie Corporation in New York, to provide an example, helps support Sesame Street.

On account of his background, Carnegie was particularly thinking about public libraries. At one point he stated a library was the best possible gift for that community, since it gave people the cabability to improve themselves. His confidence was depending on outcomes of similar gifts from earlier philanthropists. In Baltimore, for example, a library provided by Enoch Pratt has been made use of by 37,000 people 1 year. Carnegie believed the relatively few public library patrons were more value to their own community as opposed to masses who chose to never gain benefit from the library.

Carnegie divided his donations to libraries straight into the retail and wholesale periods. In the retail period, 1886 to 1896, he gave $1,860,869 for 14 endowed buildings in six communities in north america. These buildings were actually community centers, containing recreational facilities that include swimming pools along with libraries. During the years after 1896, called the wholesale period, Carnegie not supported urban multipurpose buildings. Instead he gave $39,172,981 to smaller communities which had limited use of cultural institutions. His gifts provided 1,406 towns with buildings devoted exclusively to libraries. Over half his grants were cheaper than $ten thousand. Although many of the towns receiving gifts were inside Midwest, in total 46 states took advantage of Carnegie’s plan.

Andrew Carnegie stopped making gifts for library construction carrying out a report manufactured to him by Dr. Alvin Johnson, an economics professor. In 1916 Dr. Johnson visited 100 for the existing Carnegie libraries and studied their social significance, physical aspects, effectiveness, and financial condition. His final report figured that to remain really effective, the libraries needed trained personnel. Buildings were provided, however right now it was time to staff all of them with professionals who would stimulate active, efficient libraries in their own communities. Libraries already promised continued being built until 1923, but after 1919 all financial support was considered library education.

When Andrew Carnegie died in 1919 at age 84, he had given nearly one-fourth of his life to causes where he believed. His gifts to several charities totalled nearly $350 million, almost 90 % of his fortune. Carnegie regarded all education as a technique to boost people’s lives, and libraries provided an example of his main tools to help you Americans generate a brighter future. Questions for Reading 1 1. How did progress and industrialization affect Carnegie, both when he was young, and in the future? 2. How much money formal education did Carnegie have? What factors contributed to his curiosity about books and reading? 3. What did Carnegie believe wealthy people should do in relation to their money? Why did he are convinced that? Does a person agree? 4. How did supporting libraries match Carnegie’s past with his fantastic beliefs? Reading 1 was compiled from George S. Bobinski, Carnegie Libraries (Chicago: American Library Association, 1969); Andrew Carnegie, Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie, reprint (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1920 1986); Barry Sears, On your Trail of Carnegie Libraries, Antiques and Collecting (February 1994); Gerald R. Shields, Recycling Buildings for Libraries, Public Libraries (March/April 1994).