8 Influences On Health Flashcards

Quick Solutions In Healthy Habits – A Closer Look

Depressed mothers are more likely to respond to their children with withdrawal, diminished energy, or emotion or to express feelings of hostility and rejection toward their children (Frankel and Harmon, 1996; Field, 1995). Harsh, punitive disciplinary practices are thought to feed into the cycle of anger and aggressive behavior developed by some children and youth .

Among preschool children, divorce generally had small negative effects on their social adjustment but no effects in other domains. By contrast, children of primary school age appeared to suffer greater negative effects from divorce. The authors note that the better designed studies included in the meta-analysis found smaller effects from the divorce. One-third (33.2 percent) of all births in America in 2000 were of children born to an unmarried mother , and 22.4 percent of all children live with a single parent . Longitudinal national survey studies reveal that children reared in families with two biological parents tend to complete more schooling and engage in less risky behavior , particularly if their SES is high.

Parental substance use also affects a parent’s ability to nurture and supervise. Although in the past women have been less likely than men to use illicit substances, rates have been increasing in women (National Institute of Justice, 1989; Ebrahim and Gfroerer, 2003). Parental depression and psychological distress can have powerful negative effects on child well-being.

The built environment may be defined as the part of the physical environment created by human actions—buildings and parks, roads and trails, neighborhoods and cities. This section illustrates the importance of the built environment by describing how land use and related transportation patterns that characterize an entire metropolitan area affect injuries, air quality, and physical activity patterns weight loss. The use of playground equipment is the leading cause of injuries to children in school and child care environments, with 211,000 children receiving emergency department care annually for injuries sustained on playgrounds . Factors influencing playground injury prevention include supervision, age-appropriateness of equipment, suitable fall surfaces, and equipment maintenance.

  • Examples of these resources include safe and affordable housing, access to education, public safety, availability of healthy foods, local emergency/health services, and environments free of life-threatening toxins.
  • Exposure is the sum of all exposure factors over the course of time, including the home, school, child care, and play areas.
  • The built environment affects the ways in which children are differentially exposed to some of these influences.
  • The physical environment affects children’s health by exposing them to a wide variety of external conditions.
  • Behavioral influences include the child’s emotions, beliefs, attitudes, behaviors, and cognitive abilities that affect health outcomes.

Considering Clear-Cut Health Life Plans

How much of the difference can be attributed to family structure itself in contrast to the prior and often continuing stress of a divorce or separation is not clear. Intact marriages are associated with higher incomes, more male role models, fewer residential moves, and more discipline and supervision than marriages that break up . Amato and Keith’s meta-analysis of 92 studies addressing the impact of divorce on children found that its impact depends on their ages.

While this social gradient in health is now certain for nonelderly adults, evidence for its existence in children and youth is less well documented. Case et al. documented increasing income gradients in health across childhood in several U.S. national surveys. Underlying most explanations for the link between low SES and impaired health are the diminished resources available to families living in poverty.